What is Body Dysmorphia?
By: Deanna McMichael
Published: May 16, 2024

We live in a culture where physical appearance is often idealized and closely examined, many individuals grapple with feelings of insecurity or dissatisfaction regarding their bodies. However, for some, these concerns transcend mere self-consciousness and evolve into a debilitating mental health condition known as body dysmorphia, or body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This pervasive disorder, characterized by an obsessive preoccupation with perceived flaws in one’s appearance, can significantly impact daily functioning, relationships, and overall well-being. 

What is Body Dysmorphia? 

Body dysmorphia is a mental health condition characterized by a persistent preoccupation with perceived flaws or defects in one’s physical appearance that are not observable or appear minor to others. Individuals with body dysmorphia often experience significant distress that can make day to day things like work or school challenging or sometimes nearly impossible.  

It’s important to note that body dysmorphia is different from simply being dissatisfied with one’s appearance or having low self-esteem. The distress and impairment caused by body dysmorphia are disproportionate to the actual appearance concerns. Body dysmorphia and body dysphoria are two distinct concepts within mental health. While they both involve concerns related to body image, they represent different experiences and diagnostic categories. 

Causes of Body Dysmorphia 

Understanding the multifaceted nature of body dysmorphia involves exploring its complex causes, which encompass biological, environmental, and psychological factors. 

Biological Factors: 

  • Genetic Predisposition: There is evidence to suggest that genetic factors may contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to body dysmorphia. Research indicates that certain genetic variations may influence traits related to body image perception, such as neurobiological responses to social stimuli and emotional regulation. 
  • Hormonal Imbalances: Fluctuations in hormone levels, particularly during periods of puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause, can impact body image perception and contribute to feelings of dysmorphia. Hormonal changes may influence mood, self-esteem, and body composition, exacerbating existing body image concerns. 

Environmental Factors: 

  • Societal Beauty Standards: Societal ideals of beauty, perpetuated through peer pressure and cultural norms, play a significant role in shaping individuals’ perceptions of their bodies. Unrealistic standards of beauty often prioritize thinness, muscularity, and youth, leading to feelings of inadequacy and dissatisfaction among those who do not conform to these ideals. 
  • Media Influence: Mass media, including television, film, magazines, and social media platforms, inundate individuals with images of idealized bodies that are often digitally altered or unattainable. Exposure to these unrealistic representations can distort perceptions of one’s own body and contribute to feelings of inadequacy and dissatisfaction. 

Psychological Factors: 

  • Trauma and Negative Experiences: Traumatic experiences, such as bullying, emotional abuse, or physical assault, can significantly impact body image and self-esteem. Negative experiences related to appearance, including criticism, teasing, or discrimination, can contribute to feelings of shame, self-consciousness, and dysmorphia. 
  • Low Self-Esteem and Body Image Issues: Low self-esteem, poor body image, and distorted perceptions of one’s appearance are common risk factors for body dysmorphia. Negative self-talk, comparison to others, and internalized stigma surrounding weight, shape, or appearance can fuel feelings of dissatisfaction. 

By recognizing the diverse array of factors that contribute to body dysmorphia, we can better understand its complexity and impact on individuals’ mental health and well-being. Addressing these underlying causes requires a holistic approach that encompasses biological, environmental, and psychological factors, along with a commitment to promoting body acceptance, diversity, and inclusivity in our communities and society at large. 


Signs of Body Dysmorphia 

Recognizing the signs of body dysmorphia is the first step toward understanding and addressing this complex mental health condition. By gaining insight into these signs, we can better support those affected by body dysmorphia and foster a more inclusive and understanding society. The intersection between signs of body dysmorphia and eating disorders highlights the complex relationship between body image concerns and behaviors associated with eating disorders. Individuals with body dysmorphia and those with eating disorders may exhibit overlapping symptoms and behaviors related to body dissatisfaction and distorted perceptions of their physical appearance. These signs include but are not limited to: 

  • Obsessive Focus on Appearance: People with BDD may spend excessive amounts of time examining their appearance in mirrors or other reflective surfaces, or they may avoid mirrors altogether due to distress about their perceived flaws. This preoccupation can become all-consuming and interfere with daily activities and social interactions. 
  • Excessive Self-Criticism: Individuals with body dysmorphia typically have negative and distorted perceptions of their appearance. They may believe that their perceived flaws make them unattractive or defective, leading to constant self-criticism and comparison to others. 
  • Repetitive Behaviors: People with body dysmorphia often engage in repetitive behaviors or rituals in response to their appearance concerns. These behaviors can include excessive grooming, seeking reassurance from others about their appearance, or undergoing cosmetic procedures to correct perceived flaws. 
  • Avoidance of Social Situations: Due to feelings of shame, embarrassment, or anxiety about their appearance, individuals with body dysmorphia may avoid social situations, work or school activities, or other events where they feel their appearance may be scrutinized or judged. 

Recognizing these symptoms requires a combination of awareness, empathy, and non-judgmental observation. It is essential to approach the topic with sensitivity and to create a safe space for individuals to express their feelings and experiences without fear of judgment or ridicule. By recognizing the signs of body dysmorphia, we can better support those who are struggling and help them access the resources and assistance they need to navigate their journey towards healing and self-acceptance. 


Body Dysmorphia VS Body Neutrality 

While body dysmorphia is rooted in discomfort with one’s body, the concept of body neutrality encourages a healthy relationship with one’s physical self. We encourage working on fostering a more body neutral stance towards one’s body instead of trying to focus on body positivity which could put unnecessary stress on the individual’s journey to recovery. 

Body Dysmorphia 

  • Obsession with Perceived Flaws: Individuals with body dysmorphia have a relentless preoccupation with perceived flaws or defects in their appearance, which are often exaggerated or imagined. These flaws can range from specific body parts to overall body shape or size. 
  • Emotional Distress: Body dysmorphia is accompanied by significant emotional distress and anxiety related to appearance concerns. Individuals may experience feelings of shame, disgust, or hopelessness about their perceived flaws, which can impact their self-esteem and overall mental well-being. 
  • Impact on Functioning: The preoccupation with appearance in body dysmorphia can interfere with various aspects of an individual’s life, including social interactions, work or academic performance, and daily activities. Avoidance of social situations or compulsive behaviors aimed at concealing or altering perceived flaws are common coping mechanisms. 
  • Diagnostic Criteria: Body dysmorphia is recognized as a mental health disorder and is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-5 involves the presence of distressing and impairing preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. These concerns must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. 

Body Neutrality 

  • Focus on Functionality: Body neutrality emphasizes viewing the body from a functional perspective rather than solely focusing on appearance. It encourages individuals to appreciate their bodies for what they can do, rather than how they look. The goal is to cultivate a more balanced and positive relationship with one’s body. 
  • Acceptance and Respect: Body neutrality promotes acceptance and respect for all bodies, regardless of shape, size, or appearance. It encourages individuals to recognize that their worth is not determined by their physical appearance and to shift their focus towards self-care and well-being rather than pursuing unattainable beauty ideals. 
  • Emotional Well-Being: Unlike body dysmorphia, which is characterized by distress and anxiety, body neutrality aims to promote emotional well-being and self-compassion. It encourages individuals to prioritize their mental health and to practice self-care activities that nourish both their body and mind. 
  • Empowerment: Body neutrality empowers individuals to redefine their relationship with their bodies on their own terms, free from the constraints of societal beauty standards. It promotes body autonomy and encourages individuals to set aside comparisons and judgments, fostering a more inclusive and supportive environment for all bodies. 


Recognizing when to seek professional assistance is a crucial step in managing body dysmorphia. It is important for individuals to be aware of available resources and support networks that can provide guidance and understanding. Whether through therapy, support groups, or helplines, seeking help is a courageous step towards healing. Here are some commonly used treatment approaches for BDD: 

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT is considered the most effective form of psychotherapy for treating BDD. In CBT sessions, individuals learn to identify and challenge distorted thoughts and beliefs about their appearance. They also learn coping strategies to manage distressing feelings and behaviors related to their perceived flaws. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) techniques may be used to gradually expose individuals to situations that trigger their BDD symptoms while teaching them healthier ways to respond. 
  • Medication: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a type of antidepressant medication, have been found to help reduce symptoms of BDD, particularly when used with therapy. SSRIs can help alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety that often co-occur with BDD. It’s essential to work with a psychiatrist or other qualified healthcare provider to determine the appropriate medication and dosage based on individual needs. 
  • Support Groups: Joining a support group for individuals with BDD can provide valuable peer support, validation, and encouragement. Sharing experiences with others who understand what it’s like to live with BDD can help reduce feelings of isolation and provide a sense of belonging. Support groups can be in-person or online, depending on individual preferences and availability. 

With the right support and resources, individuals with BDD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives. If you or a loved one is struggling with BDD and an eating disorder Koru Spring in Jacksonville, Florida is ready to help you on your journey to recovery. 

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